30.4.14

SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 2014 BOOKLET -1 By Mr.J.Venkatesan Prabu - Managing Director of Kaashiv Infotech

            
      SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 2014- SET 1 By 
"Mr.J.Venkatesan Prabu" 

KAASHIV INFOTECH

     [ The  Asia, India & Tamil Nadu Book Of  Record Holders ]


                                                       
    SQL Server Interview Questions 2014
SQL  SERVERBooklet 1
-         Gives you the interview tips for SQL Server

 SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 

1. Which TCP/IP port does SQL Server run on? How can it be changed?

SQL Server runs on port 1433. It can be changed from the Network Utility TCP/IP properties.

2. How to generate row number in SQL Without ROWNUM
Generating a row number – that is a running sequence of numbers for each row is not easy using plain SQL. In fact, the method I am going to show below is not very generic either. This method only works if there is at least one unique column in the table. This method will also work if there is no single unique column, but collection of columns that is unique
SELECT name, sal, (SELECT COUNT(*)  FROM EMPLOYEE i WHERE o.name >= i.name) row_num
FROM EMPLOYEE o
order by row_num

3. What are the difference between clustered and a non-clustered index?
  1. A clustered index is a special type of index that reorders the way records in the table are physically stored. Therefore table can have only one clustered index. The leaf nodes of a clustered index contain the data pages.
  2. A non clustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. The leaf node of a non clustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows.
4. What are the different index configurations a table can have?
A table can have one of these index configurations:
  1. No indexes
  2. A clustered index
  3. A clustered and many nonclustered indexes
  4. A nonclustered index
  5. Many nonclustered indexes
5. What are different types of Collation
     Sensitivity?
  1. Case sensitivity - A and a, B and b, etc.
  2. Accent sensitivity
  3. Kana Sensitivity - When Japanese kana characters Hiragana and Katakana are treated differently, it is called Kana sensitive.
  4. Width sensitivity - A single-byte character (half-width) and the same character represented as a double-byte character (full-width) are treated differently than it is width sensitive.
6. What is OLTP (Online Transaction Processing)?
In OLTP - online transaction processing systems relational database design use the discipline of data modeling and generally follow the Codd rules of data normalization in order to ensure absolute data integrity. Using these rules complex information is broken down into its most simple structures (a table) where all of the individual atomic level elements relate to each other and satisfy the normalization rules.

7. What's the difference between a primary key and a unique key?
Both primary key and unique key enforces uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that, primary key doesn't allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only.

8. What is the difference between a Local and a Global temporary table?
  1. A local temporary table exists only for the duration of a connection or, if defined inside a compound statement, for the duration of the compound statement.
  2. A global temporary table remains in the database permanently, but the rows exist only within a given connection. When connection is closed, the data in the global temporary table disappears. However, the table definition remains with the database for access when database is opened next time.

9. What is the STUFF function and how does it differ from the REPLACE function?
STUFF function is used to overwrite existing characters. Using this syntax, STUFF (string_expression, start, length, replacement_characters), string_expression is the string that will have characters substituted, start is the starting position, length is the number of characters in the string that are substituted, and replacement_characters are the new characters interjected into the string. REPLACE function to replace existing characters of all occurrences. Using the syntax REPLACE (string_expression, search_string, replacement_string), where every incidence of search_string found in the string_expression will be replaced with replacement_string.

10. What is PRIMARY KEY?
A PRIMARY KEY constraint is a unique identifier for a row within a database table. Every table should have a primary key constraint to uniquely identify each row and only one primary key constraint can be created for each table. The primary key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity.

11. What is UNIQUE KEY constraint?
A UNIQUE constraint enforces the uniqueness of the values in a set of columns, so no duplicate values are entered. The unique key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity as the primary key constraints.
12. What is FOREIGN KEY?
A FOREIGN KEY constraint prevents any actions that would destroy links between tables with the corresponding data values. A foreign key in one table points to a primary key in another table. Foreign keys prevent actions that would leave rows with foreign key values when there are no primary keys with that value. The foreign key constraints are used to enforce referential integrity.
13. What is CHECK Constraint?
A CHECK constraint is used to limit the values that can be placed in a column. The  check constraints are used to enforce domain integrity.

14. Error severity 13 indicates what? 
Transactional deadlock errors. This level of error severity indicates a transaction                                      deadlock error.
15. In which order do you perform an upgrade to SQL Server 2008 for replicated databases? 
Distributor, Publisher, then Subscriber. 
You always perform an upgrade in this order: distributor, publisher and subscriber.

KaaShiv InfoTech Offers Best Inpant Training in Chennai.


            The training at KAASHIV INFOTECH focus on developing the technical oriented concepts that turn graduates into employable assets. Handled only by professionals from MNC companies, we know how to equip you with strong technologies fundamentals.

InPlant Training Schedule for CSE/IT/MCA Students
Day
Programme
 Day 1
BigData (Practical Demos)
Day 2
Windows 8 App Development (Practical Demos)
Day 3
Ethical Hacking (Facebook Hack,Server/Website Hacking(20 Attacks)
Day 4
Cloud Computing (Live Server Demo,Live Pjt Implementation)
Day 5
CCNA (-Networking-Router Configurations Practical Demo)
InPlant Training Schedule for Electronic/Electrical/EIE Students
Day
Programme
Day 1
Embedded System  (Embedded Program Designing ,Chip Burning)
Day 2
Wireless System  (Device Designing,Controlling Fans with Wireless Sensors)
Day 3
CCNA  (-Networking-Router Configurations Practical Demo)
Day 4
Ethical Hacking  (Facebook Hack,Server/Website Hacking(20 Attacks)
Day 5
Matlab  (Capture Image,Processing, Animate Images-Practical Demos)

Mechanical/Civil Inplant training Schedule

Day
Programme
Day 1
Aircraft Designing
Day 2
Vehicle Movement in Airports
Day 3
3D Packaging Designs
Day 4
3D Modeling
Day 5
3D Window Shading


Address:

KAASHIV INFO TECH
Shivanantha Building,
X41, 5th Floor,2nd Avenue,
(Near Ayyappan Temple)
Anna Nagar, Chennai = 600040.
Send Us Your Request Email To  arun@kaashivinfotech.com,
                                                      kaashiv.info@gmail.com ,
                                                            venkat@kaashivinfotech.com
Contact Number : 9840678906 ,9003718877 , 9962345637 .



Visit our other websites

http://www.inplanttrainingchennai.com
http://www.inplanttraining-in-chennai.com
http://www.Kaashiveinotech.com
http://www.internshipinchennai.in

https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/110228862465265998202/dashboard/overview

https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/117408505876070870512/dashboard/overview

https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/104468163439231303834/dashboard/overview

https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/117640664472494971423/dashboard/overview

Feedback URLS

KaaShiv InfoTech Facebook Page
https://www.facebook.com/KaaShivInfoTech

Inplant Training Program in Chennai
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Inplant-Training-Program-in-Chennai/1402097696706380

Internship Training Program in Chennai
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Internship-in-Chennai-KaaShiv/1446147235603704

 Facebook Inplant Training page

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Inplant-Training/256116284550327




No comments:

My T-SQL Gallery @code.msdn.microsoft


Created my own T-SQL Gallery in Microsoft site. Do visit the same and share your feedback,

http://code.msdn.microsoft.com/VenkatSQLSample/Thread/List.aspx

Thanks and Regards,
Venkatesan Prabu .J

SQL Server Interview questions - Part 1

What is the significance of NULL value and why should we avoid permitting null values?
Null means no entry has been made. It implies that the value is either unknown or undefined.We should avoid permitting null values because Column with NULL values can't have PRIMARY KEY constraints. Certain calculations can be inaccurate if NULL columns are involved.

What is SQL whats its uses and its component ?
The Structured Query Language (SQL) is foundation for all relational database systems. Most of the large-scale databases use the SQL to define all user and administrator interactions. It enable us to retrieve the data from based on our exact requirement. We will be given a flexibility to store the data in our own format.


The DML component of SQL comprises four basic statements:
* SELECT to get rows from tables
* UPDATE to update the rows of tables
* DELETE to remove rows from tables
* INSERT to add new rows to tables


What is DTS in SQL Server ?
Data Transformation Services is used to transfer the data from one source to our required destination. Considering am having some data in sql server and I need to transfer the data to Excel destination. Its highly possible with dialogue based tool called Data Transformation services. More customization can be achieved using SSIS. A specialized tool used to do such migration works.


What is the difference between SQL and Pl/Sql ?

Straight forward. SQL is a single statement to finish up our work.Considering, I need some data from a particular table. “Select * from table” will fetch the necessary information. Where as I need to do some row by row processing. In that case, we need to go for Procedural Logic / SQL.

What is the significance of NULL value and why should we avoid permitting null values?
Null means no entry has been made. It implies that the value is either unknown or undefined.We should avoid permitting null values because Column with NULL values can't have PRIMARY KEY constraints. Certain calculations can be inaccurate if NULL columns are involved.

Difference between primary key and Unique key?
Both constraints will share a common property called uniqueness. The data in the column should be unique. The basic difference is,
· Primary key won’t allow null value. Whereas, unique key will accept null value but only one null value.
· On creating primary key, it will automatically format the data inturn creates clustered index on the table. Whereas, this characteristics is not associated with unique key.
· Only one primary key can be created for the table. Any number of Unique key can be created for the table.

Select Statement in SQL Server

Select Statement in SQL Server

String Functions in sql server

String Functions in sql server
Substring/Len/replace/Ltrim/Rtrim

SQL Server Interview Question - Part 2

What is normalization?

Normalization is the basic concept used in designing a database. Its nothing but, an advise given to the database to have minimal repetition of data, highly structured, highly secured, easy to retrieve. In high level definition, the Process of organizing data into tables is referred to as normalization.


What is a stored procedure:
Stored procedures are precompiled T-SQL statements combined to perform a single task of several tasks. Its basically like a Macro so when you invoke the Stored procedure, you actually run a set of statements. As, its precompiled statement, execution of Stored procedure is compatatively high when compared to an ordinary T-SQL statement.


What is the difference between UNION ALL Statement and UNION ?
The main difference between UNION ALL statement and UNION is UNION All statement is much faster than UNION,the reason behind this is that because UNION ALL statement does not look for duplicate rows, but on the other hand UNION statement does look for duplicate rows, whether or not they exist.

Example for Stored Procedure?
They are three kinds of stored procedures,1.System stored procedure – Start with sp_2. User defined stored procedure – SP created by the user.3. Extended stored procedure – SP used to invoke a process in the external systems.Example for system stored proceduresp_helpdb - Database and its propertiessp_who2 – Gives details about the current user connected to your system. sp_renamedb – Enable you to rename your database


What is a trigger?

Triggers are precompiled statements similar to Stored Procedure. It will automatically invoke for a particular operation. Triggers are basically used to implement business rules.


What is a view?
If we have several tables in a db and we want to view only specific columns from specific tables we can go for views. It would also suffice the needs of security some times allowing specfic users to see only specific columns based on the permission that we can configure on the view. Views also reduce the effort that is required for writing queries to access specific columns every time.


What is an Index?
When queries are run against a db, an index on that db basically helps in the way the data is sorted to process the query for faster and data retrievals are much faster when we have an index.


What are the types of indexes available with SQL Server?

There are basically two types of indexes that we use with the SQL ServerClustered -

1. It will format the entire table, inturn physically sort the table.

2. Only one clustered index can be created for a table.

3. Data will be located in the leaf level.

4. By default, primary key will create clustered index on the table.

Non-Clustered Index

1. It wont touch the structure of the table.

2. It forms an index table as reference to the exact data.

3. A reference to the data will be located in the leaf level.

4. For a table, we can create 249 non clustered index.

Happy Learning!!!
Regards,
Venkatesan Prabu .J

SQL Interview question

Extent Vs Page?

Pages are low level unit to store the exact data in sql server. Basically, the data will be stored in the mdf, ldf, ndf files. Inturn, pages are logical units available in sql server.The size of the page is 8KB.

Eight consecutive pages will form an extent 8 * 8KB = 64KB.

Thus I/O level operation will be happening at pages level.The pages will hold a template information at the start of each page (header of the page).

They are,

1. page number,

2. page type,

3. the amount of free space on the page,

4. the allocation unit ID of the object that owns the page.

Extents will be classifed into two types,

1. Uniform extents

2. Mixed extents

Uniform Extents:It occupied or used by a single object. Inturn, a single object will hold the entire 8 pages.Mixed

Extents:Mulitple objects will use the same extent. SQL Server will allow a max of eight objects to use a shared extent.

Property of SQL Server :Initally if an object is created, sql server will allocate the object to the mixed extent and once if the size reaches 8 pages and more... immediately, a new uniform extent will be provided for that particular object.

Herecomes, our fragmentation and reindexing concepts.

Best Joke - Enjoy it

Best Joke - Enjoy it