SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 2014 BOOKLET -2 By Mr.J.Venkatesan Prabu - Managing Director of Kaashiv Infotech

"Mr.J.Venkatesan Prabu" 


     [ The  Asia, India & Tamil Nadu Book Of  Record Holders ]

    SQL Server Interview Questions 2014
SQL  SERVER –Booklet 2
-         Gives you the interview tips for SQL Server


1. You setup a linked server from a SQL Server 2000 server to your new SQL Server 2005 server (with defaults), however you cannot execute procedures on the 2005 server. Why not? 
You need to enable RPC. 
By default, RPC is disabled in SQL Server 2005. You need to set the "remote access option" in your server configuration to 1 to allow the execution of stored procedures from a remote server.

2. What is the recommended way to send mail from SQLAgent in SQL Server 2005? 
Database Mail 
You can use either Database Mail or SQLMail with SQL Agent in SQL Server 2005. However since SQLMail will be removed, it is recommended that you use Database Mail.

3. When you create a new Message Type in the SQL Server 2005 Service Broker, what does the Authorization parameter signify? 
            The owner of the message type. 
This parameter determines the owner of the message type. This defaults to the current user.

4. What the heck does ATN2 do? 
            The angle between the x-axis and a ray. 
This is a mathematical function that returns the angle between the positive x-axis and the ray that passes through the two coordinates passed in. The angle is in radians.

5. How does a differential backup know which extents have changed so that it can be very quickly run? 
            The DCM tracks changes. The differential backup reads the extents from this structure. 
A differential backup uses the Differential Change Map to determine which extents have changed and need to be include in the backup. This greatly speeds the differential backup process.

6. What does the Queue Reader Agent do in SQL Server 2005 replication? 
            This agent reads the subscriber logs and moves changes back to the publisher. 
This agent is used when the queued update model is chosen with transactional replication. It moves changes from the subscribers back to the publishers.

7. What are the three possible functions of the plus (+) operator in SQL Server 2005, the base installed T-SQL? 
            Add, string concatenation, unary plus 
The three functions are Add, String Concatenation, and Unary Plus.

8.The Sort component in SQL Server 2005 Integration Services is what type of component? 
            Blocking Transformation 
The Sort component is a blocking transformation meaning that it needs all rows in order to perform its function.

 9. Native Web Services require what type of endpoint in SQL Server 2005? 

            HTTP endpoints Native XML Web Services in SQL Server 2005 require HTTP endpoints to communicate with clients.

10. What do you mean by an execution plan? Why is it used? How would you view it?
a.) An execution plan can be called as a road map that graphically or textually shows the data retrieval methods which have been chosen by the SQL 

Server query optimizer, for a stored procedure or ad- hoc query. 

b.) It is used because it is a very useful tool for a developer to understand the performance characteristics of a query or stored procedure. 

c.) There exists an option called "Show Execution Plan" in Query Analyzer. If this option is turned on, it will display query execution plan in separate window when the query is run again.

11. What is BCP? When does it used?
BulkCopy is a tool used to copy huge amount of data from tables and views. BCP does not copy the structures same as source to destination. BULK INSERT command helps to import a data file into a database table or view in a user-specified format.

12. What is the difference between a Local and a Global temporary table?
  1. A local temporary table exists only for the duration of a connection or, if defined inside a compound statement, for the duration of the compound statement.
  2. A global temporary table remains in the database permanently, but the rows exist only within a given connection. When connection is closed, the data in the global temporary table disappears. However, the table definition remains with the database for access when database is opened next time.
13. What is the STUFF function and how does it differ from the REPLACE function?
STUFF function is used to overwrite existing characters. Using this syntax, STUFF (string_expression, start, length, replacement_characters), string_expression is the string that will have characters substituted, start is the starting position, length is the number of characters in the string that are substituted, and replacement_characters are the new characters interjected into the string. REPLACE function to replace existing characters of all occurrences. Using the syntax REPLACE (string_expression, search_string, replacement_string), where every incidence of search_string found in the string_expression will be replaced with replacement_string.

14. What is PRIMARY KEY?
A PRIMARY KEY constraint is a unique identifier for a row within a database table. Every table should have a primary key constraint to uniquely identify each row and only one primary key constraint can be created for each table. The primary key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity.

15. What is UNIQUE KEY constraint?

A UNIQUE constraint enforces the uniqueness of the values in a set of columns, so no duplicate values are entered. The unique key constraints are used to enforce entity integrity as the primary key constraints.

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Thanks and Regards,
Venkatesan Prabu .J

SQL Server Interview questions - Part 1

What is the significance of NULL value and why should we avoid permitting null values?
Null means no entry has been made. It implies that the value is either unknown or undefined.We should avoid permitting null values because Column with NULL values can't have PRIMARY KEY constraints. Certain calculations can be inaccurate if NULL columns are involved.

What is SQL whats its uses and its component ?
The Structured Query Language (SQL) is foundation for all relational database systems. Most of the large-scale databases use the SQL to define all user and administrator interactions. It enable us to retrieve the data from based on our exact requirement. We will be given a flexibility to store the data in our own format.

The DML component of SQL comprises four basic statements:
* SELECT to get rows from tables
* UPDATE to update the rows of tables
* DELETE to remove rows from tables
* INSERT to add new rows to tables

What is DTS in SQL Server ?
Data Transformation Services is used to transfer the data from one source to our required destination. Considering am having some data in sql server and I need to transfer the data to Excel destination. Its highly possible with dialogue based tool called Data Transformation services. More customization can be achieved using SSIS. A specialized tool used to do such migration works.

What is the difference between SQL and Pl/Sql ?

Straight forward. SQL is a single statement to finish up our work.Considering, I need some data from a particular table. “Select * from table” will fetch the necessary information. Where as I need to do some row by row processing. In that case, we need to go for Procedural Logic / SQL.

What is the significance of NULL value and why should we avoid permitting null values?
Null means no entry has been made. It implies that the value is either unknown or undefined.We should avoid permitting null values because Column with NULL values can't have PRIMARY KEY constraints. Certain calculations can be inaccurate if NULL columns are involved.

Difference between primary key and Unique key?
Both constraints will share a common property called uniqueness. The data in the column should be unique. The basic difference is,
· Primary key won’t allow null value. Whereas, unique key will accept null value but only one null value.
· On creating primary key, it will automatically format the data inturn creates clustered index on the table. Whereas, this characteristics is not associated with unique key.
· Only one primary key can be created for the table. Any number of Unique key can be created for the table.

Select Statement in SQL Server

Select Statement in SQL Server

String Functions in sql server

String Functions in sql server

SQL Server Interview Question - Part 2

What is normalization?

Normalization is the basic concept used in designing a database. Its nothing but, an advise given to the database to have minimal repetition of data, highly structured, highly secured, easy to retrieve. In high level definition, the Process of organizing data into tables is referred to as normalization.

What is a stored procedure:
Stored procedures are precompiled T-SQL statements combined to perform a single task of several tasks. Its basically like a Macro so when you invoke the Stored procedure, you actually run a set of statements. As, its precompiled statement, execution of Stored procedure is compatatively high when compared to an ordinary T-SQL statement.

What is the difference between UNION ALL Statement and UNION ?
The main difference between UNION ALL statement and UNION is UNION All statement is much faster than UNION,the reason behind this is that because UNION ALL statement does not look for duplicate rows, but on the other hand UNION statement does look for duplicate rows, whether or not they exist.

Example for Stored Procedure?
They are three kinds of stored procedures,1.System stored procedure – Start with sp_2. User defined stored procedure – SP created by the user.3. Extended stored procedure – SP used to invoke a process in the external systems.Example for system stored proceduresp_helpdb - Database and its propertiessp_who2 – Gives details about the current user connected to your system. sp_renamedb – Enable you to rename your database

What is a trigger?

Triggers are precompiled statements similar to Stored Procedure. It will automatically invoke for a particular operation. Triggers are basically used to implement business rules.

What is a view?
If we have several tables in a db and we want to view only specific columns from specific tables we can go for views. It would also suffice the needs of security some times allowing specfic users to see only specific columns based on the permission that we can configure on the view. Views also reduce the effort that is required for writing queries to access specific columns every time.

What is an Index?
When queries are run against a db, an index on that db basically helps in the way the data is sorted to process the query for faster and data retrievals are much faster when we have an index.

What are the types of indexes available with SQL Server?

There are basically two types of indexes that we use with the SQL ServerClustered -

1. It will format the entire table, inturn physically sort the table.

2. Only one clustered index can be created for a table.

3. Data will be located in the leaf level.

4. By default, primary key will create clustered index on the table.

Non-Clustered Index

1. It wont touch the structure of the table.

2. It forms an index table as reference to the exact data.

3. A reference to the data will be located in the leaf level.

4. For a table, we can create 249 non clustered index.

Happy Learning!!!
Venkatesan Prabu .J

SQL Interview question

Extent Vs Page?

Pages are low level unit to store the exact data in sql server. Basically, the data will be stored in the mdf, ldf, ndf files. Inturn, pages are logical units available in sql server.The size of the page is 8KB.

Eight consecutive pages will form an extent 8 * 8KB = 64KB.

Thus I/O level operation will be happening at pages level.The pages will hold a template information at the start of each page (header of the page).

They are,

1. page number,

2. page type,

3. the amount of free space on the page,

4. the allocation unit ID of the object that owns the page.

Extents will be classifed into two types,

1. Uniform extents

2. Mixed extents

Uniform Extents:It occupied or used by a single object. Inturn, a single object will hold the entire 8 pages.Mixed

Extents:Mulitple objects will use the same extent. SQL Server will allow a max of eight objects to use a shared extent.

Property of SQL Server :Initally if an object is created, sql server will allocate the object to the mixed extent and once if the size reaches 8 pages and more... immediately, a new uniform extent will be provided for that particular object.

Herecomes, our fragmentation and reindexing concepts.

Best Joke - Enjoy it

Best Joke - Enjoy it