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SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 2014 BOOKLET -10 By Mr.J.Venkatesan Prabu - Managing Director of Kaashiv Infotech

            
      SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 2014- SET 10 By 
"Mr.J.Venkatesan Prabu" 

KAASHIV INFOTECH

     [ The  Asia, India & Tamil Nadu Book Of  Record Holders ]


                                                       
    SQL Server Interview Questions 2014
SQL  SERVER –Booklet 10
-         Gives you the interview tips for SQL Server

 SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 

1. When setting Replication, can you have Distributor on SQL Server 2005, Publisher on SQL Server 2008?

§  No you cannot have a Distributor on a previous version than the Publisher.

2. When setting Replication, is it possible to have a Publisher as 64 Bit SQL Server and Distributor or Subscribers as a 32 Bit SQL Server.

§  Yes it is possible to have various configurations in a Replication environment.

3. What is the difference between dropping a database and taking a database offline?

§  Drop database deletes the database along with the physical files, it is not possible to bring back the database unless you have a backup of the database. When you take a database offline, you the database is not available for users, it is not deleted physically, it can be brought back online.

4. Which autogrowth database setting is good?

§  Setting an autogrowth in multiples of MB is a better option than setting autogrowth in percentage (%).

5. What are the different types of database compression introduced in SQL Server 2008?

§  Row compression and Page compression.

6. What are the different types of Upgrades that can be performed in SQL Server?

§  In-place upgrade and Side-by-Side Upgrade.

7. What is Transparent Data Encryption?
§  Introduced in SQL Server 2008 Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) is a mechanism through which you can protect the SQL Server Database files from unauthorized access through encryption. Also, TDE can protect the database backups of the instance on which TDE was setup.

8. Does Transparent Data Encryption provide encryption when transmitting data across network?
§  No, Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) does not encrypt the data during transfer over a communication channel.

9. What are the operating modes in which Database Mirroring runs?
§  Database Mirroring runs in 2 operating modes High-Safety Mode and High-Performance Mode.

10. What is the difference between the 2 operating modes of Database Mirroring (mentioned in above answer)?

§  High-Safety Mode is to ensure that the Principal and Mirrored database are synchronized state, that is the transactions are committed at the same time on both servers to ensure consistency, but there is/might be a time lag.
§  High-Performance Mode is to ensure that the Principal database run faster, by not waiting for the Mirrored database to commit the transactions. There is a slight chance of data loss and also the Mirrored database can be lagging behind (in terms being up to date with Principal database) if there is a heavy load on the Mirrored Server.

11.What is Log Shipping?

§  Log shipping is the process of automating the backup of database and transaction log files on a production SQL server, and then restoring them onto a standby server. Enterprise Editions only supports log shipping. In log shipping the transactional log file from one server is automatically updated into the backup database on the other server. If one server fails, the other server will have the same db and can be used this as the Disaster Recovery plan. The key feature of log shipping is that it will automatically backup transaction logs throughout the day and automatically restore them on the standby server at defined interval.

12. Name 3 ways to get an accurate count of the number of records in a table?

SELECT * FROM table1
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table1
SELECT rows FROM sysindexes WHERE id = OBJECT_ID(table1) AND in did < 2

13. What are the different data types available in SQL Server?

Numeric: Stores numeric values.
Monetary: It stores numeric values with decimal places. It is used specially for currency values.
Data and Time: It stores date and time information.
Character: It supports character based values of varying lengths.
Binary: It stores data in strict binary (0 or 1) Representation.
Special purpose: SQL Server contains Complex data types to handle the XML Documents, Globally unique identifiers etc.

14. What are the specialized data types in SQL Server?

bit :Stores a 0, 1, or null. Used for basic “flag” values.

TRUE is converted to 1, and FALSE is converted to 0.
Timestamp: An automatically generated value. Each database contains an internal counter that designates a relative time counter not associated with an actual clock. A table can have only one time stamp column, which is set to the database timestamp when the row is inserted or modified.
Uniqueidentifier: A 16-bit GUID used to globally identify a row across databases, instances, and servers.
sql_variant: It can change the data type based on the data that is stored within it.
Cursor: Cursor is used by applications that declare cursors. It contains a reference to the cursor that can be used for operations. This data type cannot be used in a table.
Table: It is used to hold a result set for subsequent processing. This data type cannot be used for a column. The only time you use this data type is when declaring table variables in triggers, stored procedures, and functions.
Xml: It stores an XML document of up to 2 GB in size. You can specify options to force only well-formed documents to be stored in the column.

15. Which of the following has the highest order of precedence?

·         Functions and Parenthesis
·         Multiplication, Division and Exponents
·         Addition and Subtraction
·         Logical Operations

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Day
Programme
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BigData (Practical Demos)
Day 2
Windows 8 App Development (Practical Demos)
Day 3
Ethical Hacking (Facebook Hack,Server/Website Hacking(20 Attacks) 
Day 4
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Day 5
CCNA (-Networking-Router Configurations Practical Demo)
INPLANT TRAINING SCHEDULE FOR ELECTRONIC/ELECTRICAL/EIE STUDENTS
Day
Programme
Day 1
Embedded System  (Embedded Program Designing ,Chip Burning)
Day 2
Wireless System  (Device Designing,Controlling Fans with Wireless Sensors)
Day 3
CCNA  (-Networking-Router Configurations Practical Demo)
Day 4
Ethical Hacking  (Facebook Hack,Server/Website Hacking(20 Attacks)
Day 5
Matlab  (Capture Image,Processing, Animate Images-Practical Demos)

Mechanical/Civil Inplant training Schedule

Day
Programme
Day 1
Aircraft Designing
Day 2
Vehicle Movement in Airports
Day 3
3D Packaging Designs
Day 4
3D Modeling
Day 5
3D Window Shading


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My T-SQL Gallery @code.msdn.microsoft


Created my own T-SQL Gallery in Microsoft site. Do visit the same and share your feedback,

http://code.msdn.microsoft.com/VenkatSQLSample/Thread/List.aspx

Thanks and Regards,
Venkatesan Prabu .J

SQL Server Interview questions - Part 1

What is the significance of NULL value and why should we avoid permitting null values?
Null means no entry has been made. It implies that the value is either unknown or undefined.We should avoid permitting null values because Column with NULL values can't have PRIMARY KEY constraints. Certain calculations can be inaccurate if NULL columns are involved.

What is SQL whats its uses and its component ?
The Structured Query Language (SQL) is foundation for all relational database systems. Most of the large-scale databases use the SQL to define all user and administrator interactions. It enable us to retrieve the data from based on our exact requirement. We will be given a flexibility to store the data in our own format.


The DML component of SQL comprises four basic statements:
* SELECT to get rows from tables
* UPDATE to update the rows of tables
* DELETE to remove rows from tables
* INSERT to add new rows to tables


What is DTS in SQL Server ?
Data Transformation Services is used to transfer the data from one source to our required destination. Considering am having some data in sql server and I need to transfer the data to Excel destination. Its highly possible with dialogue based tool called Data Transformation services. More customization can be achieved using SSIS. A specialized tool used to do such migration works.


What is the difference between SQL and Pl/Sql ?

Straight forward. SQL is a single statement to finish up our work.Considering, I need some data from a particular table. “Select * from table” will fetch the necessary information. Where as I need to do some row by row processing. In that case, we need to go for Procedural Logic / SQL.

What is the significance of NULL value and why should we avoid permitting null values?
Null means no entry has been made. It implies that the value is either unknown or undefined.We should avoid permitting null values because Column with NULL values can't have PRIMARY KEY constraints. Certain calculations can be inaccurate if NULL columns are involved.

Difference between primary key and Unique key?
Both constraints will share a common property called uniqueness. The data in the column should be unique. The basic difference is,
· Primary key won’t allow null value. Whereas, unique key will accept null value but only one null value.
· On creating primary key, it will automatically format the data inturn creates clustered index on the table. Whereas, this characteristics is not associated with unique key.
· Only one primary key can be created for the table. Any number of Unique key can be created for the table.

Select Statement in SQL Server

Select Statement in SQL Server

String Functions in sql server

String Functions in sql server
Substring/Len/replace/Ltrim/Rtrim

SQL Server Interview Question - Part 2

What is normalization?

Normalization is the basic concept used in designing a database. Its nothing but, an advise given to the database to have minimal repetition of data, highly structured, highly secured, easy to retrieve. In high level definition, the Process of organizing data into tables is referred to as normalization.


What is a stored procedure:
Stored procedures are precompiled T-SQL statements combined to perform a single task of several tasks. Its basically like a Macro so when you invoke the Stored procedure, you actually run a set of statements. As, its precompiled statement, execution of Stored procedure is compatatively high when compared to an ordinary T-SQL statement.


What is the difference between UNION ALL Statement and UNION ?
The main difference between UNION ALL statement and UNION is UNION All statement is much faster than UNION,the reason behind this is that because UNION ALL statement does not look for duplicate rows, but on the other hand UNION statement does look for duplicate rows, whether or not they exist.

Example for Stored Procedure?
They are three kinds of stored procedures,1.System stored procedure – Start with sp_2. User defined stored procedure – SP created by the user.3. Extended stored procedure – SP used to invoke a process in the external systems.Example for system stored proceduresp_helpdb - Database and its propertiessp_who2 – Gives details about the current user connected to your system. sp_renamedb – Enable you to rename your database


What is a trigger?

Triggers are precompiled statements similar to Stored Procedure. It will automatically invoke for a particular operation. Triggers are basically used to implement business rules.


What is a view?
If we have several tables in a db and we want to view only specific columns from specific tables we can go for views. It would also suffice the needs of security some times allowing specfic users to see only specific columns based on the permission that we can configure on the view. Views also reduce the effort that is required for writing queries to access specific columns every time.


What is an Index?
When queries are run against a db, an index on that db basically helps in the way the data is sorted to process the query for faster and data retrievals are much faster when we have an index.


What are the types of indexes available with SQL Server?

There are basically two types of indexes that we use with the SQL ServerClustered -

1. It will format the entire table, inturn physically sort the table.

2. Only one clustered index can be created for a table.

3. Data will be located in the leaf level.

4. By default, primary key will create clustered index on the table.

Non-Clustered Index

1. It wont touch the structure of the table.

2. It forms an index table as reference to the exact data.

3. A reference to the data will be located in the leaf level.

4. For a table, we can create 249 non clustered index.

Happy Learning!!!
Regards,
Venkatesan Prabu .J

SQL Interview question

Extent Vs Page?

Pages are low level unit to store the exact data in sql server. Basically, the data will be stored in the mdf, ldf, ndf files. Inturn, pages are logical units available in sql server.The size of the page is 8KB.

Eight consecutive pages will form an extent 8 * 8KB = 64KB.

Thus I/O level operation will be happening at pages level.The pages will hold a template information at the start of each page (header of the page).

They are,

1. page number,

2. page type,

3. the amount of free space on the page,

4. the allocation unit ID of the object that owns the page.

Extents will be classifed into two types,

1. Uniform extents

2. Mixed extents

Uniform Extents:It occupied or used by a single object. Inturn, a single object will hold the entire 8 pages.Mixed

Extents:Mulitple objects will use the same extent. SQL Server will allow a max of eight objects to use a shared extent.

Property of SQL Server :Initally if an object is created, sql server will allocate the object to the mixed extent and once if the size reaches 8 pages and more... immediately, a new uniform extent will be provided for that particular object.

Herecomes, our fragmentation and reindexing concepts.

Best Joke - Enjoy it

Best Joke - Enjoy it